I am sure others can add their favorite examples of what the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) expects students to know by certain grades that NGSS ignores, but here is one good example from my area of interest as a graduate electrical engineer.
I found the problem in question while looking for questions from the new NAEP Technology and Engineering Literacy assessment. It is a fourth grade work problem from the 2009 NAEP Science Assessment. This work problem asks fourth grade students to explore some of the characteristics of electrical circuits using a battery, several light bulbs, and several samples of conductor and non-conductor materials.
The big problem: NAEP clearly expects fourth grade students to have some exposure to closed electric circuits. However, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) all but ignore the subject and generally delays what bits and pieces regarding closed electrical circuits that (maybe) are covered until later grades.