Celebrating National School Choice Week: Homeschooling

NSCW Stacked Logo UnitHome schooling is the ultimate form of parental school choice…the ultimate example of parents taking responsibility for ensuring their children are educated and prepared for the future.

The Kentucky Constitution protects the right of Bluegrass State parents to homeschool their children. What’s required? Parents must:

  • Notify the superintendent of the local school board in writing within 10 days of the beginning of the school year of their intent to homeschool their child(ren) each year they homeschool; the letter must include the name, ages and residence of each child in attendance of the homeschool.
  • Establish a bona fide school for the children to attend. When informing the district superintendent of your desire to homeschool, create a school name. This will be used for future records and diplomas.
  • Record and maintain scholarship reports of each student’s progress in all subjects taught at the same intervals as the local public schools. The best way to do this: keep a portfolio that contains samples of the best work done by each child in several areas of study and maintain the portfolio year after year.
  • Keep a record of courses taken and grades received.LSC(Dick's)
  • Keep accurate attendance records of pupil attendance. The minimum number of school days 185 days or equivalent to 177 six-hour days.
  • Be open to inspection by directors of pupil personnel, who are allowed to confirm that compulsory attendance requirements are met. The inspection may be conducted in a neutral site rather than the home.
  • Offer all instruction in the English language; subjects should include reading, writing, spelling, grammar, history, science, math and civics. Parents also have the right to offer other subjects, including religious teaching.

What the National Home Education Research Institute says:

“Homeschooling students score above average on achievement tests regardless of their parents’ level of formal education or their family’s household income.”

“The home-educated are doing well, typically above average, on measures of social, emotional, and psychological development. Research measures include peer interaction, self-concept, leadership skills, family cohesion, participation in community service, and self-esteem.”

“Home-educated students typically score above average on the SAT and ACT tests that colleges consider for admissions.”

“The research base on adults who were home educated is growing; thus far it indicates that they … vote and attend public meetings more frequently than the general population, and go to and succeed at college at an equal or higher rate than the general population.”

By adult, home educated students “internalize the values and beliefs of their parents at a high rate.”

Click here for more information on homeschooling trends and academic performance as well as the social, emotional and psychological development and real-world success of home-educated adults. 

Celebrating National School Choice Week – The ESA Frontier: Boldly going where education reform has (hardly) gone before

NSCW Stacked Logo UnitThe Bluegrass Institute for Public Policy Solutions, Kentucky’s first and only free-market think tank, joins with hundreds of groups nationwide to celebrate the fifth annual National School Choice Week (Jan. 25-31). Since its beginning more than 11 years ago, the Bluegrass Institute has been the leading voice to give Kentucky parents effective alternatives to ensure that each child receives a quality education. As part of National School Choice Week, the Bluegrass Institute will publish a series of blogs offering information on different types of school choice. This series will be one of 6,000 events nationwide taking place as part of this year’s National School Choice Week.

 Today, we offer this snapshot of education savings accounts:

 “Charter and voucher programs were the rotary telephones of our movement – an awesome technology that did one amazing thing. We are heading in the direction of iPhone choice programs – they still do that one thing well, but they also do a lot of other things.” –Matthew Ladner, Foundation for Excellence in Education

Wait a sec’! ‘ESA sounds a lot like ‘HSA’health savings account’  LSC(Dick's)

  • Just like ‘health savings accounts’ (HSAs) empower individuals to take responsibility for their own health care, so ‘education savings accounts’ (ESAs) empower parents with the resources to provide the best education – including needed services – for their children.
  • Just like HSAs are designed to provide access to quality health care for individuals who otherwise would be unable to afford it, so ESAs provide access to a quality education for students who ^ would hopelessly be stuck in failing schools.
  • Just like HSAs allow individuals to tailor a health-care program to fit their unique needs – instead of paying for services they neither want nor need – so ESAs empower parents to access at least some of their tax dollars meant to educate children. Parents may use these dollars for: private-school tuition and fees; textbooks; certified tutors; services for special-needs children, including therapists; universities and community colleges; online programs; online programs; individual public-school courses controlled by parents.
  • Just like HSA recipients receive a debit card loaded with funds allowing them to negotiate prices and pay for medical expenses, so ESA families receive debit cards loaded with funds allowing them to pay for approved expenses needed to pay for their children’s educational services.
  • Just like HSAs allow unused monies to be saved by recipients for future health-care expenses, so unused ESA monies can be used by parents for future education expenses, including paying for college and providing therapy and tutoring for special-needs children. This creates an effective incentive to vigorously negotiate for services, thus lowering costs – both for health care and education!  “Parents have an incentive to seek maximum value for each dollar spent because these account based programs allow for saving for future higher education expenses.” –Matthew Ladner, Foundation for Excellence in Education

Currently, only Arizona and Florida offer ESA programs:

* Florida limits ESA access to families of special-needs children

* Arizona makes the nation’s most expansive ESA policy available to serve: special-needs children; foster-care children; children zoned to attend a failing school; families of active duty military personnel; children who lost a parent in active duty.

Click here for ESA model legislation. 

 

How scholarship tax credits work in New Hampshire

NSCW Stacked Logo Unit
Former BIPPS staff member Caleb Brown, now at the CATO Institute, passed along his recent video on how scholarship tax credits are working in New Hampshire. Under this program, also known as tuition tax credits, business and industry can contribute to a non-profit scholarship granting organization. That organization then provides scholarships to parents who want a private school alternative to the traditional public school system. The scholarships can be tailored so more needy students get a higher level of support.

Unlike the school voucher program, no tuition tax credit money ever enters the public coffers, which avoids a lot of red tape and really streamlines the program.

LSC(Dick's)

As you watch this video about New Hampshire, consider that this exciting program that can work here in Kentucky, too. Also, if you have not already done so, check out our other National School Choice Week blog on scholarship tax credits from our own Jim Waters. Jim provides more, Kentucky-specific ideas about this real opportunity to increase school choice options for Kentucky’s students and parents.

Celebrating National School Choice Week: Digital Learning

NSCW Stacked Logo UnitThe Bluegrass Institute for Public Policy Solutions, Kentucky’s first and only free-market think tank, joins with hundreds of groups nationwide to celebrate the fifth annual National School Choice Week (Jan. 25-31). Since its beginning more than 11 years ago, the Bluegrass Institute has been the leading voice to give Kentucky parents effective alternatives to ensure that each child receives a quality education. As part of National School Choice Week, the Bluegrass Institute will publish a series of blogs offering information on different types of school choice. This series will be one of 6,000 events nationwide taking place as part of this year’s National School Choice Week. 

Today, we offer this snapshot of digital learning, which offers great potential for:  

o   lowering education costs

o   tailoring instruction to specific students’ needs

o   closing achievement gaps

o   lifting high school graduation rates

o   lowering dropout rates

 

The Barren Academy of Virtual and Expanded Learning (BAVEL):

o   focuses on the students to provide a meaningful and challenging learning environment for all BAVEL students outside the walls of a traditional public school.

o   serves grades 6-12 from public, private and home schools

o   contains all levels of students – from gifted and talented children to at-risk kids

o   accredited by the National Collegiate Athletic Association

o   offers Dual Credit partnerships with Kentucky colleges and universities

o   accepts students from anywhere in the state

o   allows students to either take classes their traditional public school doesn’t offer, including Advanced Placement courses

o   allows students to achieve their degree entirely online

o   is flexible, allowing students to customize their schedules by registering for one or more courses from a menu of core content, AP, college dual credit or foreign languages courses

o   allows students to accelerate their learning

o   meet the diverse needs of the students and families it serves, regardless of where they live or their schedules

o   no buses to catch, no bells to follow, no after-school meetings for parents and no fundraisers to sell

o   no bullying, uniforms or lunchroom fees, only teachers and students.

o   certified master teachers who care about the students they serve.

o   many of BAVEL’s students were previously at risk of dropping out, but now attend and graduate from college

o   graduated 95 percent of its eligible students in one recent school year

o   its 11th-graders scored 19.0 on the ACT during a recent year – much higher than the state’s average among at-risk students.

 

More about BAVEL here and here.

Online learning could address main discrepancies in American education – the disparate access to high-quality teachers and instruction caused by socioeconomic and geographic differences. A child’s chances of attending a school with high-quality teachers largely depend on where she lives, which is shaped by her parents’ financial means. Online learning could give all students, regardless of where they live, access to the best instructors.” –Dan Lips, The Heritage Foundation

Celebrating National School Choice Week: Vouchers

NSCW Stacked Logo Unit The Bluegrass Institute for Public Policy Solutions, Kentucky’s first and only free-market think tank, joins with hundreds of groups nationwide to celebrate the fifth annual National School Choice Week (Jan. 25-31). Since its beginning more than 11 years ago, the Bluegrass Institute has been the leading voice to give Kentucky parents effective alternatives to ensure that each child receives a quality education. As part of National School Choice Week, the Bluegrass Institute will publish a series of blogs offering information on different types of school choice. This series will be one of 6,000 events nationwide taking place as part of this year’s National School Choice Week.

Today, we offer this Q&A about vouchers: 

Q: What is a voucher?

A: A program that allows parents to use state funding set aside for their children’s education to send their child to a private school of their choice.

Q: Who’s eligible to receive a voucher?

A: Most states with voucher programs require recipients to: LSC(Dick's)

  • be resident of the state; meet specific income requirements
  • have a child who currently: (a) attends a failing – or at least a public – school
  • have a learning-disabled student that has received an Individualized Education Program (IEP)
  • be previous voucher recipients
  • have siblings who already attend a private school of choice using a scholarship

Q: Are private schools participating in voucher programs required to accept all students who apply?

A: No. This is where there is a marked difference between voucher schools and their public counterparts. While public schools – including charter schools – cannot refuse to accept any child who applies, private voucher schools may, for example, limit enrollment to students who meet certain academic qualifications. However, this can vary by state. Schools participating in the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program, for example, may not set special requirements for students who receive financial assistance via vouchers.

Q: Are vouchers available only to poor people?

A: While several voucher programs do limit participation based on income, the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program is making it possible for even some middle-class families to have access to at least small vouchers to help provide quality educational choices for their children:

  • Families of four making less than $43,500 can receive a voucher in the amount of up to 90 percent of per-pupil state funding in the district in which they reside.
  • Families of four making more than $43,500 but less than $65,250 can receive 50 percent of per-pupil state funding in the district in which they reside.
  • Families of five making more than $51,634 but less than $77,451 can receive a small voucher.
  • While per-pupil state funding amounts vary by district, it is $8,000 in the Indianapolis Public Schools district, of which a maximum of $4,700 can be spent on private-school tuition for elementary schools; no such cap exists for high school students.

Q: Are school-voucher programs a novel or radical idea?

A: No. Consider:

  • More than 115,000 students are currently enrolled in the 21 voucher programs nationwide.
  • More than 19,000 scholarships were awarded to students through the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program during the 2013-14 school year.

“Our goal is to have a system in which every family in the U.S. will be able to choose for itself the school to which its children go. We are far from that ultimate result. If we had that – a system of free choice – we would also have a system of competition, innovation, which would change the character of education.”  Nobel laureate Milton Friedman

 

 

New poll shows strong majority favor school choice; Democrats on board, too!

NSCW Stacked Logo UnitA new national poll from the American Federation for Children shows a solid majority of likely voters in the United States favor school choice. Some key findings:

– 69 percent support school choice, including 45 percent who strongly support it while 27 percent oppose it
– 63 percent support private school choice, specifically “opportunity scholarships, also known as school vouchers”
– 76 percent support charter schools
– 65 percent of those surveyed believe that “choice and competition” among schools improves education

Now, here is the real surprise. The press conference on the findings was keynoted by Kevin Chavous, who is a Democrat, former Washington, DC, City Councilman and one-time mayoral candidate.

Also, Debora Beck, who conducted the poll and does specialized communications services to Democratic political candidates, advocacy groups, and corporations, says:

“The poll clearly shows widespread support, among voters of both political parties as well as independents, for school choice. Any public official – or potential candidate for President — who ignores these numbers does so at their own peril.”

So, school choice is a bipartisan issue. Even Democratic pollsters admit that. When Kentucky’s legislators wake up to the fact that the desire for much better public school options for parents isn’t a partisan issue – it’s a “what is best for children” issue. And, voters from both sides of the article clearly understand that.

Celebrating National School Choice Week: Scholarship Tax Credits

NSCW Stacked Logo Unit The Bluegrass Institute for Public Policy Solutions, Kentucky’s first and only free-market think tank, joins with hundreds of groups nationwide to celebrate the fifth annual National School Choice Week (Jan. 25-31). Since its beginning more than 11 years ago, the Bluegrass Institute has been the leading voice to give Kentucky parents effective alternatives to ensure that each child receives a quality education. As part of National School Choice Week, the Bluegrass Institute will publish a series of blogs offering information on different types of school choice. This series will be one of 6,000 events nationwide taking place as part of this year’s National School Choice Week.

Today, we offer a snapshot of Scholarship Tax Credits: LSC(Dick's)

Business friendly. House Bill 141, which was introduced during the 2014 session of the Kentucky General Assembly, offers Kentucky businesses a 50 percent tax credit for donations to scholarship funds, which then are used to assist students by paying tuition, fees and other items related to getting an education at a private school. This way, businesses are directly contributing to the education of future members of its workforce. (Some scholarship tax-credit programs also allow individuals to participate.)

Student friendly. Scholarship tax credits are creating opportunities for disadvantaged students as well as those from poor and even middle-class families to receive a quality education in private schools and thus more likely determine their own fate. Currently, there are 17 scholarship tax credit programs in 14 states, 13 of which require means testing and limit access based on income. There are two scholarship programs specifically designed to assist special-needs children.

Family friendly. Several recent surveys suggest that scholarship tax credits remain the most popular form of private school choice. A recent Education Next survey indicates that 60 percent of respondents favored scholarship tax credits (up from just 46 percent in 2009) compared to 50 percent for universal school vouchers and only 37 percent of low-income vouchers. Support was strongest among younger Americans (aged 18-34) who support this form of school choice by a 74 percent to 14 percent margin.

(2)RevisedScholarship Tax Credits

Taxpayer friendly. House Bill 141 would have resulted in the possibility of 30 million new dollars being made available to educate kids in Kentucky each year – all without raising taxes. A nonpartisan analysis of the Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program reports that taxpayers in the Sunshine State save $1.49 for every $1 spent on the program.

Administratively friendly. While monitored by state government for financial accountability, the scholarship programs are run by nonprofit, tax-exempt, scholarship-granting organizations (SGOs) which use their own criteria for distributing scholarship monies to eligible students. HB 141 would have required these organizations to use at least 90 percent of the funds they receive in the form of scholarships actually received by children while the remaining 10 percent funds is for administering the program.

Application friendly. Families do not even have to approach the scholarship-granting organizations themselves. Families turn over information about their finances when applying to a private school of their choice, which the school in turns over to the SGO, which. The SGO then contacts the school and the family and informs them how much tuition it will pay. It’s a simple process that results in an underprivileged family securing a bundle of donated dollars to pay for their children’s private education.

School friendly. SGOs must be willing to distribute the funds it receives to children at more than one school. Prohibiting these entities from becoming a scholarship bank for one particular school keeps the initiative focused on the students rather than schools.

Politically friendly. Kentucky’s Constitution, which contains a strong Blaine Amendment, makes the prospects of scholarship tax credits more politically feasible than vouchers directly granted by parents. As Adam Schaeffer, an adjunct scholar with the Cato Institute, stated: “Tax credits are less likely to be challenged and overturned by state courts. It is difficult enough to convince legislators to stand up to the government education industry and support school choice without them worrying that the law will be found unconstitutional. Education tax credits come with little of the legal baggage under which vouchers currently strain.”

Click here for more information on states with scholarship tax-credit  programs, including Kentucky’s neighboring states of Indiana and Virginia.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bluegrass Beacon: Kentucky is barely ‘back’

BluegrassBeaconLogoA little-known fact about Arnold Schwarzenegger’s famous “I’ll be back” line in his “Terminator” movie is that it just about didn’t happen because the famous Austrian-born actor-turned-governor-turned-actor-again had difficulty pronouncing “I’ll” properly.

Director James Cameron refused to grant Schwarzenegger’s request to change the phrase to the easier-to-pronounce “I will be back.” The American Film Institute marks the shorter “I’ll be back” as history’s 37th most memorable movie quotation.

Of course, the phrase probably would not have reached such notoriety had it also not had the credibility backed up by Schwarzenegger’s cyborg assassin character, who utters the now-famous line to the cop at the entrance-desk window of the police station where his target Sarah Conner is being housed. The credibility of his promise is greatly enhanced when he actually does return a few moments later – in the form of a car crashing through the doors right into that officer’s counter.

Gov. Steve Beshear in recent his State of the Commonwealth speech zealously declared: “Kentucky is back, and we’re back with a vengeance.”

His claim, however, lacks that needed credibility.

In key categories of employment, population and wage growth, the commonwealth is not “back with a vengeance.” It’s barely “back” to where it was when Beshear gave his first State of the Commonwealth address in January 2008:

  • According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), total private-sector weekly earnings are up, on average, less than 1 percent annually since Beshear took office. That hardly offers an economic portrait entitled: “back with a vengeance.”
  • While the governor touted the drop in unemployment in his speech, he said nothing about the drop in employment, which should be of great concern. An analysis of data from the BLS and the U.S. Census Bureau reveals that only 8,000 net jobs have been added during Beshear’s stint in office. (BLS and U.S. Census Data).
  • The commonwealth’s manufacturing sector isn’t even “back” to where it was during Beshear’s first year in office. Instead, there was a net decline of 14,200 manufacturing employees between November 2008 and November 2014. At the same time, there was an increase of 16,900 government jobs during that same period (BLS).

“While the ship’s not sinking, “it’s not going anywhere fast, either; it’s limping into port,” said economist John Garen, Gatton Endowed Professor of Economics at the University of Kentucky’s Gatton College of Business and Economics and chairman of the Bluegrass Institute Board of Scholars. “While there are some growth areas in Kentucky, overall it doesn’t present the picture of a dynamic, robust, growing economy. We just barely made it back to where we were when the recession hit in 2008.”

“Back,” like “beauty,” may be somewhat in the beholder’s eye. What’s not up for grabs is the fact that wishing something was happening is not always an indication of reality.

No reasonable Kentuckian, for instance, wants to believe that our education system is not “back with a vengeance.” Thus, we heard Beshear’s enthusiastic claims that “student performance has improved tremendously” and “college and career readiness has skyrocketed.”

However, he used questionable Department of Education statistics to claim that the commonwealth’s college and career readiness rate jumped from 38 percent in 2011 to 62 percent in 2014.

The commonwealth’s own Office of Education Accountability (OEA) recently reported that problems with these statistics are so severe that they cannot be relied upon to evaluate programs or compare performance between school districts. In fact, the OEA warned the statistics were not even consistently reported between 2011 and 2014.

The only stable college-readiness statistics available for the period are from the ACT college entrance test, which shows only a minimal, 5 percent increase in readiness for college between 2011 and 2014. Among 2014 Kentucky grads scarcely more than one in three showed college readiness on the ACT.

“Back?” Barely.

“Back with a vengeance?” Hardly.

Jim Waters is president of the Bluegrass Institute, Kentucky’s free-market think tank. Reach him at jwaters@freedomkentucky.com. Read previously published columns at www.bipps.org.

Lawsuit filed against county’s authority to enact right-to-work law

Here is information about a lawsuit filed recently by several labor unions against the Hardin County Fiscal Court, which recently became the fifth county in the country and commonwealth to pass a right-to-work ordinance. The Bluegrass Institute is collaborating with Protect My Check, Inc. to protect Kentucky workers and ignite our commonwealth’s economy. 

0January 15, 2015 (Elizabethtown, KY) — Today, the UAW, joined by several other national unions, filed a lawsuit against Hardin County, Kentucky challenging the County’s Right to Work ordinance, which was enacted earlier in the week.  The Right to Work Ordinance protects employees of private companies in Hardin County from being fired simply for refusing to pay union dues.

Under the ordinance, current union contracts in Hardin County are unaffected until contract renewal, and public employees are not covered.  The Hardin County Fiscal Court passed the measure on Tuesday, January 13, 2015 by a vote of 8-1, joining Warren County, Fulton County, Simpson County and Todd County in enacting such a measure, with nearly unanimous, bi-partisan support across the state.    There are now more than a quarter million Kentuckians protected by Right to Work laws, noted Protect My Check, Inc, a non-profit that is assisting counties who are passing the ordinances.

“We knew they would file a lawsuit,” said Judge Executive Mike Buchanon of Warren County, which was the first County in the country to pass the ordinance.  “They yelled ‘see you on court’ when we passed it, and, as I understand it, at pretty much every other County that has enacted this ordinance.  But none of us is going to let a union boss from Louisville or Frankfort come into our county and bully us out of creating more jobs in our counties.  In fact, just this week the Kentucky County Judge-Executives Association Legislative Committee passed a resolution supporting our authority to enact these laws and there are 2 dozen more lined up to follow.”

When asked to comment on the Hardin County ordinance, Dave Adkisson, President and CEO of the Kentucky Chamber of Commerce replied, “This ordinance allows certain counties in Kentucky to compete on a level playing field with our neighbors in Tennessee, Indiana and elsewhere for jobs that have been going to other states. I am convinced we are losing thousands of jobs each year because we are not designated Right to Work. Thanks to the leadership of these Judge Executives and their community leaders, I’ll be able to reach out to site selectors and make sure that we are at the top of even more of those lists.  I hope to see more Counties follow suit.”

While the unions are quick to cite an Opinion Letter released by Attorney General Jack Conway as dispositive of the legal matter of County authority, Jason Nemes, lead counsel for Protect My Check in Kentucky, responded, “I’m not worried about that letter; it simply reflects the Attorney General’s personal opinion on the matter, which, as we all know, can sometimes be shaped by politics.”  Mr. Nemes elaborated, “In support of our legal argument, we have a respected County Attorney, the former President of the Kentucky Bar Association, and two retired Justices of the Supreme Court – three Democrats and one Republican – who agree our ordinance rests on solid ground.  Frankly, I’m looking forward to resolving the matter once and for all.”

Nemes further observed “The Attorney General did not even sign the opinion; he had a staff attorney do it, and as the Justices and County Attorney pointed out, he didn’t even cite the Kentucky Home Rule Statute, or address 50 years of federal court and US Supreme Court authority that support our position.”

Several other Kentucky counties are now joining in the fight.  Several other counties have conducted or scheduled first readings of the same ordinance in recent days and more are scheduled to do so in the coming weeks.

For more information – please visit www.mycheckmychoice.org and on Facebook at www.facebook.com/mycheckmychoice

Jason Nemes is of Counsel with Fultz Maddox Hovious & Dickens PLC in Louisville. Contact: (502) 992-5045.

###

Protect My Check, Inc. is a non-profit group that supports local legislators, workers and employers who seek to expand employee rights and create jobs by passing local right to work protections in the 25 states lacking statewide protections.

Celebrating National School Choice Week: Charter Schools

NSCW Stacked Logo UnitThe Bluegrass Institute for Public Policy Solutions, Kentucky’s first and only free-market think tank, joins with hundreds of groups nationwide to celebrate the fifth annual National School Choice Week (Jan. 25-31). Since its beginning more than 11 years ago, the Bluegrass Institute has been the leading voice to give Kentucky parents effective alternatives to ensure that each child receives a quality education. As part of National School Choice Week, the Bluegrass Institute will publish a series of blogs offering information on different types of school choice. LSC(Dick's)This series will be one of 6,000 events nationwide taking place as part of this year’s National School Choice Week.

Today, we offer this snapshot of public charter schools:

  • Popular. The most popular form of school choice nationwide. Forty-two states have charter school laws that serve more than 2.1 million students.Kentucky does not offer this option to parents.
  • Public. Charter schools are publicly funded and must be open to all who apply, including special needs students.
  • Local. Most charter schools are designed by educators, parents or civic leaders and focus on specific areas, such as “math and science” or “the arts.”
  • Chosen. No student is assigned to, or forced to attend, a charter school. All charter-school students are enrolled by a parent or legal guardian, who choose to send them to that school.
  • Innovative. Charter schools are not bound by many of the regulations – including collective-bargaining agreements – that hamper quality education in traditional public schools.
  • Accountable. Charter schools must meet the same test-score and teacher-qualification requirements as their districts’ traditional public schools. In fact, charters in most cases promise to outperform their traditional public schools within five years.
  • Bipartisan. A majority of students enrolled in public charter schools nationwide are eligible for the federal free-or-reduced-price lunch program. Most are from low-income and minority homes; it’s not a right-wing conspiracy.

“I believe public education is the new civil rights battle and I support charter schools. –Gov. Andrew Cuomo, D-New York

For more information on public charter schools, read the Bluegrass Institute’s recent online debate here.